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How to Identify 

and Avoid 

Geo. N. Lamb 

This book is for those who appreciate the 
rare beauty and "stay-ability" of genuine Ma- 
hogany—nature's perfect gift from the tropical 
jungle. It is hoped that the information here 
presented will help the many lovers of Mahogany 
to avoid imitations and substitutes and assist 
them in the selection of the genuine, to their 
lasting satisfaction. 


Copyright 1940 
by the 


75 East Wacker Drive 

Pnnted in U.S.A. 

Mahogany grows only as widely scattered trees in 
the depth of the tropical jungle. 


For Inexperienced Buyers 

If the buyer is in a hurry or does not wish to acquire 
the special information necessary to be able to recognize Mahog- 
any, the following are three rules that will make it possible 
to avoid substitutes when inquiring for furniture of genuine 

1. Purchase only from a retailer with an established 
reputation for honest dealing. 

2. Look for the official Mahogany Association label. 
All genuine Mahogany furniture is not yet so labeled 
but all furniture so labeled is warranted by the 
manufacturer to be genuine Mahogany since under 
the terms of the license covering the use of Mahog- 
any Association labels, they may be affixed only to 
genuine Mahogany furniture. 

3. If furniture is unlabeled, insist that a full guarantee 
be written on the invoice by the retailer. Furniture 
represented as solid genuine Mahogany or repre- 
sented as genuine Mahogany should be so described 
on the invoice. Unwillingness to do so raises a doubt 
as to the accuracy of the representations that have 
been made. 


Mahogany in the unfinished state ranges from yellowish 
and pinkish to golden brown in color. With the stains and 
bleaches available to the wood finisher, color is not a deter- 
mining factor in the identification of the wood in finished pieces. 
Most present day Mahogany furniture is finished so as to 
bring out the natural color of the wood, i.e., a sherry brown 

Mahogany wood shows well distributed but not crowded 
pores, from medium to rather large in size. They show up on 
smooth surfaces as distinct but fine pen lines, dashes or dots 
according to whether the cut runs with or across the grain. In 
the pores there are occasional dark glistening black deposits; 
more rarely the pores also contain a whitish substance. Suc- 
cessive growth rings are marked by fine concentric lines in 
American Mahogany but these lines are not usually present in 
African Mahogany. The rays or flakes are fine but show up 
minutely on perfectly quartered pieces. On flat cut surfaces 

FOOTNOTE: Four things are combined in a piece ot furniture, 
material, design, workmanship and finish. The Mahogany As- 
sociation label guarantees only that the wood is genuine 
Mahogany. However, when yen buy genuine Mahogany, at 
least reasonably good design, craftsmanship and finish can be 
taken tor granted. Quality materials are seldom wasted in 
interior products. 

the rays appear in rows in American Mahogany and usually 
are staggered in African Mahogany although this can be seen 
clearly only with a hand lens. 

Genuine Mahogany, when properly finished, has a fine- 
grained, silky appearance, and a rich color that seems to come 
from below the surface of the wood. Figured Mahogany is 
additionally characterized by the way in which it catches light. 

Figure in Mahogany is the result of irregular grain. 
As the angle of sight moves straight across the grain of a 
figured surface, the dark places remain dark and the light 
places remain light. However, when the angle of sight changes 
in the direction of the long way of the grain, light and dark 
areas will interchange, giving an almost iridescent effect. 


When a Mahogany sur- 
face is cut with the 
grain, the pores show 
irregularly as fine pen 




When the cut is very 
slightly across the grain, 
the pores appear as short 


■ » , 


Where the cut is rather 
strongly across the grain, 
the pores appear as dots. 


Among the things that help to identify Mahogany are the 
many and beautiful figures that occur in it. Perhaps no other 
wood is so richly endowed or shows such variety. Like many 
other tropical woods Mahogany has an "interlocking" grain. 
This characteristic produces some kind of a stripe or ribbon 
effect on quartered surfaces. In addition to this general char- 
acteristic many trees also show some "curl" in the grain and 
this is responsible for endless combinations of broken stripe, 
rope, mottle and fiddle figures. 

Most distinctive, and generally considered the most 
beautiful of wood figures are the famed Mahogany crotches 
and swirls. These are rich in contrasting surfaces and in 
endless variety of pattern. 

On the inside of the front and back covers of this book 
are shown the outstanding types of Mahogany figures. 

The section just below a 

fork in the tree produces 

Mahogany 1 s swirl and 

crotch veneer. 

The lower part is wood split 

with the grain in order to 

show interwoven grain; above, 

the resulting figure. 


(We do not disparage any of the less expensive woods 
that are frequently finished to resemble Mahogany. Such woods 
have their uses, their place in the economic scheme and are 
entitled to receive any treatment at the wood finisher's com- 
mand that will make them more attractive. The point we wish 
to emphasize as strongly as possible is that they should stand 
on their own merits and in their own names and not appropriate 
the name "Mahogany" to gain popular acceptance.) 


This plentiful southern hardwood lumber is the most 
common substitute used for solid framework construction in 
connection with Mahogany veneers. It can be distinguished 
from Mahogany quite easily as the pores in the wood are too 
small to see with the naked eye. If you can't make out the 
pores, it's probably gumwood. Anyway, it isn't Mahogany. 


The northern yellow birch is another hardwood often given 
a " Mahogany" finish. It has even been called "Birch Mahog- 
any." It is heavier and harder than gumwood. The pores are 
about half-way in size between those of gumwood and Mahog- 
any. In good light they are fine but distinct. If one cannot 
quite make up his mind whether it is birch or Mahogany it is 
usually birch. 

Under the name "Philippine Mahogany" a half dozen 
or more different species of the Dipterocarp family are being 
marketed in the United States. These woods come from trees 
in no way related to the trees that produce genuine Mahogany. 
In furniture these woods are used largely as solid lumber. When 
given a conventional Mahogany finish, they show a superficial 
resemblance to Mahogany. Quartered stock especially shows 
a stripe figure not unlike that of Mahogany. When compared 
with Mahogany, however, the pores are larger and the appear- 
ance coarser. These woods are mostly plain and have little 
figure except the plain flat cut or the quartered stripe. Mahog- 
any shows more life and more depth and changeableness. The 
term "Philippine Mahogany" bears somewhat the same rela- 
tion to genuine Mahogany that the term "Hudson Seal" (dyed 
muskrat) occupies with relation to genuine sealskin. 



A- Top Rail 
B- Splat 
C- Back Rail 
D-Arm Rest 
E- Arm Support 

^-F- Seat Rail 
— G- Stretchers 


The seat rail, arm sup- 
ports and legs are the 
parts most commonly 
substituted. To be gen- 
uine Mahogany , the 
paints as indicated, also 
should be Mahogany. 



C- Drawer 



The most common sub- 
stitution in tables is a 
Mahogany top with 
supporting parts in a 
substitute. To be sure 
of getting genuine Ma- 
hogany, the parts as 
indicated also should be 

A -Top 




G- Front 



When there is substitu- 
tion in "cases" the top 
and drawer fronts are 
usually Mahogany. 
The parts as indi- 
cated also should be 


Mahogany is the only fine cabinet wood of which there 
is an ample supply of lumber available at a reasonable cost. 
This lumber is also available in greater widths and lengths 
and with greater freedom from defect than other fine woods. 
Accordingly, solid Mahogany furniture is readily available and 
such furniture has several distinct advantages. 

In the first place there is more figure in Mahogany 
lumber than in the lumber of other cabinet woods, so that tops 
and fronts of a dresser or sideboard may be made uniform 
by selection of boards of similar appearance either in flat cut 
or quartered surfaces. Thus, solid Mahogany has much to 
offer in appearance with a variety of stripes, flat cut and 
swirly figures available. 

The making of cases such as dressers or sideboards of 
solid lumber calls for its own technique, but this technique, 
properly followed, produces furniture with a high degree of 
stability. Solid furniture is comparatively easy to repair and 

Because of the large 
dimensions of Ma- 
hogany, it is possible 
to make one-piece 
tops such as in this 
reproduction of a 
Chippendale tilt-top, 
pie-crust table. 

refinish if it should happen to receive undue abuse. The record 
of solid Mahogany furniture that has passed through the ordeal 
of flood is outstanding. 


Under this description will be found the major part 
of the Mahogany "case goods" made today. Typically, as in a 
dresser, the exposed framework is of solid Mahogany lumber 
and the top, sides and drawer fronts are of Mahogany-faced 
plywood. One advantage of this construction is the greater 
beauty available through use of figured and matched veneers 
as well as the equalizing of strength and stability in both 
directions of the panel. "Veneered" has long been a term of 
opprobrium but properly made plywood, bonded with modern 
glues is very decidedly a quality product. This type of con- 
struction is often advertised as "all Mahogany" in retail stores 
with no intent to misrepresent. This is a term that grew up in 
the trade to distinguish such a piece as a table with a Mahog- 
any plywood top and solid Mahogany legs from one that has 
legs of a substitute wood. While it is in no way deceptive 
in the trade, it is capable of misleading the uninformed public 
and therefore it is a descriptive term that should not be used. 

This superb dining room shows English Regency at its best 
— the last great style of the century of Mahogany. 


(This is a misnomer for "Mahogany and Birch/' etc. Since the wood ot 
lesser value is not mentioned, it is therefore a deceptive term that 
ju/d not be use 

The type of construction sometimes called "Combination 
Mahogany 91 is much less common with Mahogany than in furni- 
ture in which other kinds of veneers are used. Very common 
descriptions of this type of construction are "Mahogany veneers" 
— "Top in matched Mahogany veneers," etc. Such descriptions 
may be deceptive because, while they stress the use of veneers 
with seeming candor, they neglect to inform the public that 
exposed solid structural parts are of a substitute wood. The 
obvious reason for such construction is a reduction in cost 
that may be as small as $2.00 in the retail cost of an ordinary 
dining chair. Another term for this construction is "Mahoga- 
ny and selected hardwood," thus avoiding specific mention 
of the name of the substitute. 


(It only this description is given without the actual name of the wood 
used, the term "Mahogany Finish" is misleading and should be avoided.; 

In most stores, for convenience, economy of effort or 
perhaps due to a policy of telling as little as possible, there 
is no place on the tag designated for the name of the wood or 
woods used in the piece of furniture. There is a place only 
for finish, usually followed by such abbreviations as "Man." 

« 10 » 

or "Mhy." The public, knowing of rooms and walls "trimmed" 
or "finished" in Mahogany, often assume that "Mahogany 
finish" on a furniture tag means that the piece is made of 
Mahogany. "Mahogany finish" is the usual term applied to a 
substitute wood finished to resemble Mahogany. Variations 
in this deceptive term may be "finished in rich, brown, two- 
toned, or antique Mahogany," as the case may be. 

Another kind of "finish" is especially dangerous to the 
unwary buyer. We refer to photographic transfers of beauti- 
fully figured and matched cabinet woods applied to other wood 
surfaces. Such finishes are out and out imitations and should 
be so described on tags and in advertising. They can be de- 
tected by putting the piece in a good light and noting a cer- 
tain light or dark section. In real wood dark sections become 
light and light sections dark as the angle of sight changes 
in the direction of the long way of the grain. In the photo- 
graphic surface all dark areas stay dark and all light areas 
stay light, no matter from what angle it is viewed. These 
imitation finishes have a flat artificial appearance and do 
not wear like real wood. The "changeableness" of figured wood 
is something that cannot be imitated. 

Radio cabinets in 
Mahogany are vow 
available in a wide 
range of styles to 
harmonize with 18th 
Century Mahogany 
furniture. This cabi- 
net was inspired by 
John Goddard of 
Newport, R.I., who 
created beautiful 
block- front chests. 


There is a very deep-rooted belief that if furniture is 
"solid" it is better than furniture that is only "veneered." 
There is also much propaganda that the liability to warp and 
crack can be avoided only by veneered construction. As a 
matter of fact, neither description is a sole criterion of quality. 
The very best and the very worst furniture has been made 
both solid and veneered for 200 years and today is still being 
made both ways. 

The Van Pelt Mahogany highboy in the design of the 
Philadelphia Chippendale school, which sold a few years ago 
for $44,000.00, was veneered in beautiful crotch Mahogany. 
The Benjamin Randolph Chippendale wing chair that brought 
$33,000.00 at the same sale, was of solid Mahogany. In present 
day furniture we have all seen cheap furniture poorly made 
of inferior woods both in solid and veneered construction. 

Both types of construction are valuable to the art of 
making good furniture. The usefulness of each type varies 

This chest is made of solid Mahogany lumber with a modest 
but pleasing figure, 

with the kind of furniture, i.e., chair, dressef, and its design. 
There are proper construction methods for using each success- 
fully. Generally, lumber is more advisable for structural, turned 
or carved parts. Generally, plywood is indicated for larger 
flat surfaces. 

The main advantage of plywood is the use of large, 
figured or matched surface pieces, giving a pattern and a beauty 
not possible with solid lumber. Plywood construction also 
equalizes strength and stability in both directions of the surface. 
On the other hand, furniture properly designed and constructed 
of solid lumber can take more punishment and be repaired 
and reflnished more successfully and at less cost. 

The reason for this is that veneers are comparatively 
thin and rightly so because the thinner veneers are, up to a 
certain point, the better they behave. If such surfaces are 
smashed or broken through the surface veneer, repairing is 
difficult and expensive. On the other hand, solid wood may bo 
sanded down to the extent necessary to remove the blemish of 
misuse and then be reflnished. 

This chest has its frame of solid Mahogany and the top, 

sides and front of Mahogany-faced plywood. Note the 

highly figured crotch on the front. 

« 13 » 


Plywood may be any number of layers of wood but usually 
an odd number, and five layers are typical of the plywood 
used in furniture. The center layer is usually made of rather 
narrow boards, glued edge to edge. The thickness of this core 
depends upon the required thickness of the panel. Next on both 
sides of this core are layers with the grain running at right 
angles to it. These layers are called crossbanding and are 
usually 1/20" in thickness. Over each crossband, with the 
grain running the way of the grain of the core, are the face 
and back veneers, usually 1/28" in thickness. 

There are many places in furniture construction where 
plywood is necessary; for instance, in a thin irregular shaped 
chair splat fastened only at the top and bottom. The pierced 
gallery around an occasional table top is another good example. 
The grand piano rim is probably the most outstanding instance 
of plywood construction. 





In furniture labeled "Genuine Mahogany" all exposed 
surfaces are either of Mahogany faced plywood or of solid 
Mahogany lumber. 

Many people still cling to the idea that "veneering" is 
the covering of something that is shoddy with a thin layer of 
something that is fine. The use of the word "veneer" in litera- 
ture tends to confirm this definition. As a matter of fact the 
art of veneering and inlaying is thousands of years old and 
today, through the use of improved processes and adhesives, 
plywood has become a very superior product. 

« 14 - 


The best rule is to patronize only stores that have a 
well-established reputation for honest merchandise and honest 
merchandising. Because a great deal of the real quality in 
furniture is hidden, it always pays to buy from a reliable 
source. The next best advice is — be sure that you get 
genuine Mahogany furniture. If it is genuine Mahogany, you 
may be sure that design, workmanship and finish will be at 
least reasonably good for the price, for no manufacturer is 
going to buy a quality material with which to turn out in- 
ferior merchandise. 

Some of the earmarks of quality you can see for your- 
self. Carvings should be clean, sharp and smooth. Turnings 
should be clean and smooth. Plywood should be smooth and 
flat. Stand so that the light strikes a table top at an angle. 
That will show up any waviness or depressions. Examine 
drawer interiors for clean, dove-tail or lock- joint construction. 
Note whether the drawer interiors are smoothly finished. 
Turn up chairs to see if frame is well joined with tight fitting, 
glued and screwed coi*ner blocks. Don't be too much impressed 
with so-called "dust-proof" construction. In good furniture 
this consists of a tight-fitting framed panel between drawers. 
Even poorly constructed furniture may boast some kind of 
dust-proof construction, a thin sheet of rotary cut veneer or 
even composition board tacked in. Avoid muddy finishes and 
dark stains that virtually conceal the wood. On dressers or 
other cases look for plywood backs set flush into the frame and 
applied with screws rather than backs of card or composition 
board nailed on. Note the care with which doors and drawers 
have been fitted. Compare the furniture you contemplate 
buying with furniture that you know is of fine quality. Beware 
of high pressure selling methods, undue emphasis on easy 
credit terms and read everything carefully before you sign. 
Always remember that it is far better to buy a few good pieces 
adding others as you can, than to buy a lot of junk that will 
be a headache before it is paid for. 


The prospective buyer of furniture should know that 
there are definite rules for describing wood furniture. These 
rules were established in 1925 by the Federal Trade Commission 
after conferences with the lumber and furniture industries. 
These rules with interpretations are self-explanatory, but it 
should be especially noted that wood descriptions apply only 
to exposed surfaces. 

« 15 » 

Rules for the Designation of Furniture Woods 


Furniture in which exposed surfaces are of one wood shall be 
designated by the name of the wood. 


Furniture in which the exposed surfaces are of more than one 

kind of wood shall be designated by the names of the 

principal woods used. 

Interpretation of Rules 

1. Exposed surfaces mean those parts of a piece of 
furniture which are exposed to view when the piece is placed 
in the generally accepted position for use. 

2. The exposed surfaces of all furniture or parts thereof 
represented as solid shall be of solid wood of the kind or kinds 
designated. * (If veneered on the same wood, it may be designated 
as a wood of that particular kind. If veneered on a different 
wood, it shall be described as veneered.) 

3. Cabinet woods, used for decorative purposes where 
the effect is solely to add to the artistic value, shall be named 
as decorations only. 

4. A wood popularly regarded as of lesser value, if its 
use is essential to construction, need not be named under 
Rule II, if less than a substantial amount is used on ex- 
posed surfaces. 

5. A wood popularly regarded as of higher value, shall 
not be named under Rule II, if an insubstantial amount of that 
wood is used, except as provided in Interpretation 3, above. 

6. Designations shall be made in the caption or body 
of each particular description without qualification elsewhere. 

7. The word "Finish" to designate color, shall only 
be used as a description, following the name of the wood used. 

8. Where furniture is cataloged, tagged, labeled, ad- 
vertised or sold, by retailers, it shall be in accordance with 
these Rules and Interpretations. 

9. Where furniture is cataloged, tagged, labeled, ad- 
vertised, invoiced, or sold, by manufacturers, manufacturers' 
representatives, jobbers or wholesalers, it shall be in accordance 
with these Rules and Interpretations. 

10. The above Rules need not apply to antique furniture. 

•The validity of the portion of rule No. 2 included within the brackets was 
challenged by the BerkeyS Gay Furniture Company, et al, in a proceeding 
nfh,L it ^t^f feS -?fffc° Urt of Appeals, 6th Circuit and under date 
-^ 3 fi The Said Umted Staies Circuit Court oi Appeals set aside the 
said portion oi Interpretation No. 2. While said decision would not necessarily 
be controlling in any new proceeding betore the Federal Trade Commission 
involving this question, nevertheless the tact that no appeal was taken by the 
Federal Trade Commission from the said decision raises a serious question as 
to the validity and enforceability of the said portion of Interpretation No. 2. 

« 16 » 


Mahogany is native only to Tropical America and Africa. 
Commercially, only three species are important, although Ma- 
hogany is known by many geographical names indicating estab- 
lished origins. Thus the West Indian species (Swietenia mahag- 
oni) is marketed as Cuban and Santo Domingo Mahogany, 
although formerly Jamaica, the Bahamas and other West 
Indian islands were sources of production. 

On the mainland, we have another species (Swietenia 
macrophylla) with Honduras, Mexican and Tabasco as the best 
known source names, but with production also from Guatemala, 
Nicaragua and Panama. In the past some Mahogany has come 
from Colombia and Venezuela, also for the past twenty years 
the upper Amazon in western Brazil and Peru have become 
important sources. The Mahogany from the upper Amazon 
is known as Peruvian and Amazon Mahogany. 

Mahogany also comes from the Gold and Ivory Coasts 
and from Nigeria on the west coast of Africa and the principal 
species (Khaya ivorensis) is known in this country only as 
African Mahogany. African Mahogany is the source of our 
most highly figured veneers. 




C £ A S 

oijjV PERU 

Map showing the areas where Mahogany is grown. 

17 i 


Fortunately it is not necessary for the buyer of furniture 
to be a wood expert in order to be sure of getting genuine 
Mahogany. The Mahogany Association, Inc., have prepared 
copyright labels that are the exclusive property of the associa- 
tion. These labels are issued to responsible manufacturers of 
furniture under a license which provides severe penalty for 

Although all Mahogany furniture does not yet carry these 
labels, they give to the purchasing public the best possible pro- 
tection against the sale of substitutes as genuine Mahogany. 
In addition to the labels, there are also tags and seals for use 
on pieces where the label cannot readily be applied. 

The Mahogany labels are colored transfers that cannot 
be removed from one piece of furniture and applied to another. 
On a case, such as a dresser, the label is usually applied to an 
upper drawer side, occasionally to the drawer bottom. On tables 
and chairs the labels are most frequently applied underneath. 
On a bed they are usually applied to the back of the headboard. 

When buying Mahogany furniture 
always ask to see these labels. 

Mahogany bedroom furniture in contemporary design. Finish 
honey tone, trimmed in chocolate brown. 


More than 180 manufac- 
turers have entered into 
a license agreement with 
the Mahogany Association 
for the use of these labels 
and they may be found on 
Mahoga n y furniture i n 
any good store. 

Blue Label, Genuine Mahogany 
Red Label, Solid Genuine Mahogany 


Exact size of gold 
seal for small 
Mahogany novel- 
ty pieces. 

These identifica- 
tion tags are used 
both with the 
labels and alone. 
While of a tem- 
porary character, 
they shoidd ac- 
company delivered 

19 , 

Queen Anne 
17 02-17 lh 

Early Georgian 
1720-1? '40 

Chippendale Lived 


One of the grandest things about 
Mahogany is that it came into gen- 
eral use during the hundred years 
that mark the golden era of good 
furniture design. The "Century of 
Mahogany" covered the span from 
1725 to 1825. During that century 
there were developed Early Georgi- 
an, Chippendale, Adam, Hepple- 
white, Sheraton and Regency in 
England with their counterparts in 
America: late Colonial and Federal 
American as exemplified by Duncan 
Phyfe and other great American 
cabinetmakers. Mahogany also found 
its way into French furniture of 
the Louis XV and Louis XVI and 
Empire periods. 

These styles embrace practically 
all of the traditional furniture that 
is beautiful and practical for our 
homes of the present day. No other 
wood approaches Mahogany in the 
variety and beauty of traditional de- 
signs that are authentic only in 
Mahogany. Mahogany was the cabi- 

Died 1786 


Sheraton Lived 

net wood used by the great masters 
and Mahogany produced the cream 
of the crop as garnered and treas- 
ured by museums and collectors. 

In addition to the undisputed au- 
thenticity of Mahogany for the fa- 
vored traditional styles it also gives 
all of its beauty, stability and dura- 
bility to fine furniture in contempo- 
rary or modern design. It is availa- 
ble in the widest range of figure and 
in finishes from blond through the 
natural honey tones to the rich 
depth of the traditional "Old World" 

No matter whether your prefer- 
ence is for traditional or contempo- 
rary styles, both are always availa- 
ble and always better when in Ma- 
hogany. As long as the human race 
continues to cherish the natural 
product of the forest, Mahogany will 
find no serious competitor as the 
world's No. 1 cabinet wood, a posi- 
tion gained through centuries of 
preference by those of discriminating 

19 W 

Duncan Phyfe Lived 


Louis XVI 
177 4-17 9 S 

English Regency 

«21 » 

Colonial American 
Until 1775 


The leadership of Mahogany as the premier cabinet wood 
is not an overnight fad, here today and gone tomorrow. It has 
stood the test of time through several centuries. It has com- 
peted with the great woods of the world and has emerged 
as the first choice of those who know fine cabinet woods. 

It has variety as well as enduring and increasing beauty. 
From plain to highly figured and in both solid lumber and in 
veneers, it is available at reasonable prices in fine dimensions 
and with freedom from defect. It has long been the cabinet- 
maker's choice for it is kind to tools and repays the finisher 
in four-fold beauty. 

Mahogany leads the field in stability and its strength and 
durability are confirmed by the prized possessions of the great 
museums. Apparently the chemical nature of Mahogany tend? 
to repel certain types of wood destroying insects and tend? to 
make Mahogany resistant to organisms of decay. 

Mahogany is the ideal wood for the expression of the 
finest in contemporary design while it is the one historically 
correct and authentic cabinet wood for those favored styles 
of the golden age of furniture design, be it Georgian, Chippen- 
dale, Hepplewhite, Sheraton, Colonial or Federal American, 
Louis XV, Louis XVI, Empire or English Regency. 

And it's as true today as it was 100 years ago that — 





The Mahogany used in this hand-made Chippendale chair 
came from a beam of a demolished house that was built between 
1509 and 1515 in the city of Santo Domingo by Don Francisco 
Clavijo, a follower of Don Bartolome Columbus, brother of the 
discoverer of the new world. At the time it was on the "Street 
of Clavijo," but it is now number 39 of the street "21th of 
February." This rich wood mellowed by over 425 years is un- 
doubtedly the oldest Mahogany in the world. 

Mahogany has been the first choice of 
master craftsmen from the time of 
Chippendale down to the present day. 

"There is hardly anything in the world that some man 
cannot make a little worse and sell a little cheaper and the 
people who consider price only are this man's lawful prey." 

— Ruskin 

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